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Technical Remarks:

Transcription table:

أ ā, a, e, ʾ
ب b
پ p
ت t
ث s̱, ṯ
ج c, ǧ
چ ç, č
د d
ذ ẕ, ḏ
ر r
ز z
ژ j
س s
ش ş, š
ض ż, ḍ
ع ʿ
غ ġ
ف f
ق q, ḳ
ك k, g, ñ
ل l
م m
ن n
و ū, u, ü, o, ō, ö, v, w
ه h, e/a
ى ī, i, ı, ė, y

Notes on the transliteration:

Depending on a text’s language, we used two different systems of transcription:

  1. Ottoman Turkish follows the system of the İslam Ansiklopedisi with the exceptions ė instead of i and q instead of .
  2. We decided to leave Arabic and Persian texts not in their original script but to transcribe them as well. Hence, Arabic and Persian texts, quotes from the Koran, personal names, and book titles in Arabic and Persian follow the system of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft. Arabic expressions which are an integral part of the Ottoman lexicon have been transcribed with their Turkish pronunciation.

// new line in the original text.

[…] illegible words or passage.

(text) duplicated or redundant words or letters.

[?] doubtful readings.

[!] misspellings, especially concerning the orthography of Arabic and Persian words.

In order to facilitate readability, we did not indicate with [!] the hundreds of orthographic mistakes: e.g., instead (daḥı/daḫı), c instead ç (gėce/gėçe), and the like.

[‑]i the letter of the iżāfet-construction is written out, a misspelling which frequently occurs both in poems and prose.

ʾi/ʾı at the end of a word: accusative is indicated with a hamza.

m‑r‑ż‑y hyphenated single letters: a word was legible but not found in the dictionaries.


Personal names, place names, months, book titles, and Allāh, are capitalized.


Hyphens have been used only in word combinations (as meyḫāne) or words combined with Arabic or Persian prefixes or prepositions (as biʿaynihī or derḥāl).

The postposition ile in its suffixed form is given with a hyphen only when written with a and explicitly included no possessive, hence murād‑ile, murādla, murādıyla.

Suffix vocalism:

Because we are dealing with texts of the 16th and 17th centuries, in the transcriptions we use the older Ottoman Turkish suffix vowels, such as the possessive suffix of the first person plural -umuz/-ümüz. If the copyist explicitly indicated different vocalization by plene-script or vocal signs, we transcribed accordingly.